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Apkarian, Jacob

Apkarian, Jacob

Curriculum Vitae

Associate Professor
Behavioral Sciences

Phone: 718-262-2986
Office Location: AC-4D06B

Office Hours  
Tuesday  1:00pm - 4:00pm 


Degree Institution Field Dates
PhD  University of California, Riverside  Sociology  2015 
BS  Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute  Physics  2005 
Jacob Apkarian is an Associate Professor of Sociology at York College studying organizational governance. He is currently a Research Fellow at the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions. His research examines the institutional logics guiding organizational decision making in the finance industry and in higher education. He is interested in quantitative methods and teaches research methods and statistics to sociology, anthropology, and political science majors. He has published an online open access textbook covering statistical analysis of social network data with Robert Hanneman. Jacob has applied his expertise in statistical modeling to collaborate on research in a variety of disciplines including criminal justice, political science, and social psychology. His research has been cited by the New York Times, Washington Post, Associated Press, Science Magazine, Chronicle of Higher Education, and other news outlets.

Areas of Expertise

Higher Education
Social Networks
Quantitative Methods

Books in Field Of Expertise

Apkarian, Jacob and Robert A. Hanneman. 2016. Statistical Analysis of Social Networks: An Online Open Access Textbook. Jamaica, NY: CUNY, York College. (

Articles in Field Of Expertise

Savage, S., Apkarian, J., & Park, H. 2022. "How Exchange Forms and Patterns Affect Perceptions of Predictability, Fairness, and Group Identification." Advances in Group Processes. 39 : 51-74.

Herbert, W. A., & Apkarian, J. 2019. "You’ve Been with the Professors: An Examination of Higher Education Work Stoppage Data, Past and Present." Employee Rights and Employment Policy. 23(2) : 249-277.

Apkarian, J. 2018. "Opposition to Shareholder Value: Bond Rating Agencies and Conflicting Logics in Corporate Finance." Socio-Economic Review. 16(1) : 85-112 [Awarded the 2019 Best Paper Prize by the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics].

Torres, J., & Apkarian, J. 2018. "Banishment: A Test of Specific Deterrence in Public Housing." Criminology and Public Policy. 17(4) : 911-937.

Torres, J., Apkarian, J., & Hawdon, J. 2016. "Banishment in Public Housing: Testing an Evolution of Broken Windows." Social Sciences. 5(4) : 61.

Apkarian, J., Bowler, S., Hanneman, R., & Martin, B. 2015. "Donor Motivations in the California State Legislature: A Social Network Analysis of Campaign Contributions." Connections. 35(1) : 36-51.

Nieri, T., Apkarian, J., Kulis, S., & Marsiglia, F. F. 2015. "Effects of a Youth Substance Use Prevention Program on Stealing, Fighting, and Weapon Use." Journal of Primary Prevention. 36(1) : 41-49.

Apkarian, J., Mulligan, K., Rotondi, M. B., & Brint, S. 2014. "Who Governs? Academic decision-making in U.S. four-year colleges and universities, 2000-2012." Tertiary Education and Management. 20(2) : 151-164.

Apkarian, J., Fletcher, J. B., Chase-Dunn, C., & Hanneman, R. A. 2013. "Hierarchy in Mixed Relation Networks: Warfare Advantage and Resource Distribution in Simulated World-Systems." Journal of Social Structure. 14(1) : 1-17.

Fletcher, J. B., Apkarian, J., Roberts, A., Lawrence, K., Chase-Dunn, C., & Hanneman, R. A. 2011. "War Games: Simulating Collins’ Theory of Battle Victory." Cliodynamics: the Journal of Theoretical and Mathematical History. 2(2) : 252-275.

Fletcher, J. B., Apkarian, J., Hanneman, R. A., Inoue, H., Lawrence, K., & Chase-Dunn, C. 2011. "Demographic Regulators in Small- Scale World-Systems." Structure and Dynamics. 5(1) : 1-31.

Chapters in Field Of Expertise

Apkarian, J. 2020. "Decision Making." The SAGE Encyclopedia of Higher Education. Vol. 1, edited by M.E. David and M.J. Amey. UK : SAGE Publications Ltd.

Non Refereed Proceedings in Field Of Expertise

Herbert, W. A. & Apkarian, J. 2017. "Everything Passes, Everything Changes: Unionization and Collective Bargaining in Higher Education." Perspectives on Work. 21(1) : 30-35.

Malofeeva, E., Milligan, K., Avery, D., Hanneman, R., Apkarian, J., & Ruvalcaba, M. 2011. "Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Childhood Obesity Prevention: Social Network Analysis Policy Brief." . Award ID: 68538 and 69281.

Monographs in Field Of Expertise

Herbert, W. A., Apkarian, J., & van der Naald, J. 2023. "Union Organizing and Strikes in Higher Education: The 2022-2023 Upsurge in Historical Context." . in The State of the Unions 2023: A Profile of Organized Labor in New York City, New York State, and the United States by R. Milkman & J. van der Naald: CUNY School of Labor and Urban Studies.

Herbert, W. A., Apkarian, J., & van der Naald, J. 2020. "2020 Supplementary Directory of New Bargaining Agents and Contracts in Institutions of Higher Education, 2013-2019." . National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions : Hunter College.

Torres, J., & Apkarian, J. 2018. "Policy Evaluation of NRHA’s Trespass/Ban Policy." . Technical report for the Chief of Police and Assistant Chiefs of Police in the Norfolk Police Department: (Norfolk, VA).

Reviews in Field Of Expertise

"The Logic of Social Science" by James Mahoney in the Journal of Political and Military Sociology. 2022. 49(1): 120-122.


Presented Papers, Lectures, and Exhibitions and Performances

" Determinants in Higher Education Representation Election Results, 2012-2020 " 2022: Labor and Employment Relations Association.

" Evaluating the Validity of Conflicting Logics of Governance in Corporate Finance " 2021: American Sociological Association.

" Academic Labor Union Density Growth (2013-2019) in Perspective " 2021: Labor and Working-Class History Association.

" Growth in Union Density Among Academic Labor, 2012-2019 " 2020: National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions.

" Governing Board Networks and Institutional Trends in Higher Education " 2019: American Sociological Association.

" Patterns of Exchange, Justice Evaluations, and Group Identification across Two Forms of Exchange " 2019: American Sociological Association.

" Shifting Logics of Legitimacy and an Emerging Paradox in the Corporate Bond Rating Industry " 2019: Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics.

" Similarity Coefficients for Sets of Dichotomous Variables Exhibiting Shuffling Dependence " 2019: Eastern Sociological Society.

" Bond Ratings as Evidence for Competing Institutional Logics in Corporate Finance " 2017: American Sociological Association.

" Opacity vs. Objectivity: Tension in the Increasingly Scrutinized Corporate Credit Rating Industry " 2017: Eastern Sociological Society.

" The Legitimacy Paradox in Corporate Credit Rating " 2016: Southern Sociological Society.

" Banishment in Public Housing: Deterrence and Displacement " 2016: American Society of Criminology.

" Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations and the Promotion of Institutional Myths " 2014: American Sociological Association.

" Who Governs? Dual and Managerial Control in U.S. Four-Year Colleges and Universities " 2013: American Sociological Association.

" Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Agencies as Agents of Institutional Isomorphism " 2013: American Sociological Association.

" Political Conditions for Successful Military Coups 1940-1984: A Boolean Classification Analysis " 2012: American Sociological Association.

" The Rationality behind Network Emergence " 2011: American Sociological Association.

" Simulating Dynamic Rationality and the Emergence of Network Structures " 2011: Pacific Sociological Association.

" The Dynamics of Synchronization in World Systems: A Formal Model " 2010: American Sociological Association.

" Complex Dynamics of a System of Simple Settlements " 2010: Pacific Sociological Association.

" The Human Demographic Regulator " 2009: American Sociological Association.

Professional Honors, Prizes, Fellowships

Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics 2019 Best Paper Prize: 2019.

York College Recognition Award for Outstanding Scholarship: 2019.

CUNY Faculty Fellowship Publication Program Recipient: 2018.


PSC-CUNY Research Grant, "An Examination of Bargaining for the Common Good in Higher Education". 2022: $5994.

PSC-CUNY Research Grant, "Governance Board Networks in Postsecondary Education". 2017: $5956.

Virginia Tech: Niles Research Award, "The Impact of Boards on Institutional Trends in Higher Education". 2016: $4000, Declined by recipient.

National Science Foundation, "Statistical Rating Organizations and Institutional Isomorphism" (SES- 1408572). 2014: $5569.

Other Professional Activities and Public Service

Research Fellow at the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education at Hunter College: 2018 - Present.

Organizer and Moderator for "Faculty Compensation in Public Higher Education" Panel at the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining Annual Conference: 2019.

Organizer and Moderator for "Financialization of Higher Education" Panel at the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining Annual Conference: 2018.

Organizer and Moderator for "Markets and Higher Education" Panel at the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining Annual Conference: 2017.

Ad Hoc Reviewer: Socio-Economic Review, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Social Forces, Social Currents, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Political Research Quarterly, Research in Higher Education, Tertiary Education and Management, Journal of Collective Bargaining in the Academy, Structure and Dynamics, Ekonomika: 2009 - Present.