BIO493 (Liberal Arts) Independent Study 6 hrs. 3 crs. Independent research in an area of mutual interest to students and a faculty member. A formal report on topic is required. Preq: Permission of instructor prior to registration. Not open to students with a combined total of 12 credits in Independent Study in the Natural Sciences Department. PASS/FAIL after 6 credits of Independent Study in Natural Sciences have been completed. A student may register for only one independent study course in the Natural Sciences Department per semester, intersession or summer session.